2016年12月31日土曜日

音楽の真実は?ビジネスのだまし方はどうだ・宣伝もしつこい

音を外に持ち出す楽しみ、音を生活のさまざまなシーンにフィットさせる楽しみ。それは、朝気持ちよく目覚めることだったり、通勤のストレスがなくなったり。ドライブ中には、密閉空間だからこそ臨場感が味わえたり、休日の午後のくつろぎがひときわ豊かになったり、書斎で飲む仕事終わりのウイスキーが、落ち着けるBARでの一杯になったり。最高の音を持ち運び、生活にうまく取り入れる。そして、毎日が楽しく豊かになる。『音・音楽』を聴かなくなる理由って、忙しくて自分のいる場に聴ける環境がないとか、聴く手段とかの面倒くささですよね。メディアが大きかったりとか。カセットだったらA面からB面にひっくり返さなきゃとか。
だけど今、逆に、レコードを聴いたりカセットを聴いたりという動きがある。わざわざ針を落とすのを楽しんだり、あと持っている音質そのものの違いとか、音のあたたかさを楽しむようになったり。
ハイレゾフォーマットでレコードの音を聴くというのは、そのいいとこ取りのような体験。あたたかみのある音を、より手軽に聴ける。さらには、場所を選ばず屋外でも聴ける。しかも、しっかりした音質で。
例えると、この一年くらい、ハンドドリップで淹(い)れるコーヒーショップが流行っていますよね。ただコーヒーを飲めればいいと思ってインスタントを飲んでいたけど、今はコーヒーそのものを“楽しむ”ようになっている。音楽にも同じことが言えますよね.
for what?
these
ステレオレコードプレーヤー
PS-HX500
グラスサウンドスピーカー
LSPX-S1
ワイヤレスポータブルスピーカー
h.ear go(SRS-HG1)
リニアPCMレコーダー
PCM-D100
LED電球スピーカー
LSPX-100E26J

How to rip your music CDs to a lossless format

If you’ve got a shelf-full of CDs gathering dust at home, it’s time to leave the past behind and start thinking about how to upgrade your music-listening experience.
On the fence about taking the time to rip your entire CD collection? Trust us, it’ll all be worth it. Keep in mind that a lossless digital music collection saves shelf space and is easy to take with you on-the-go and back up to an external hard drive. If you have a massive music collection, it also makes it easier and quicker to find that one particular song or album you’ve been craving. Plus, you’ll be able to access your digital music library from your smartphone or tablet.
Here’s how to rip your CDs and transfer them to a lossless format.

Choose Your Music File

There are several lossless formats to consider. Here are our top picks:

FLAC

FLAC (Free Lossless Audio Codec) is compressed to keep file sizes small, but it’s also lossless, meaning that it’s on par with CD quality. CD audio converted to FLAC will typically be reduced to 50 percent of its original size. For reference, a three-minute song on a CD will take up 30-40 MB of space while a ripped FLAC version of that same song takes up 15-20 MB. If sound quality is your top priority, then FLAC is the format for you.

Apple Lossless

Apple Lossless Audio Codec (or ALAC) was developed by Apple and works with iTunes, your iPod and your iPhone (it’s also supported by several other hardware and software players). Like FLAC, it’s compressed and supports metadata, and takes up about 40 - 60 percent the size of an uncompressed CD. If you’re big into Apple products, then this one’s for you.

AIFF and WAV

AIFF (Audio Interchange File Format) and WAV (Waveform Audio File Format) are lossless, but uncompressed. That means ripped files take up the same amount of space as they would on a CD (10 MB per minute of stereo sound). Because of their large file sizes, these formats are less desirable than FLAC and Apple Lossless (you’d need about twice the storage space for the same library). On the plus side, AIFF and WAV are compatible with a wide range of devices and software.

Pick a Ripping Software

Once you’ve determined which digital format you’re going to go with, it’s time to start looking at ripping software. Here are a couple options to choose from:

Max (for Mac users)

This is a free app that is available for Apple computers running Mac OS X 10.4 and higher. Max is able to create audio files in all four lossless formats. If your CDs are slightly scratched, it can correct any errors that might occur during the ripping process. If you want stellar sound quality and tons of encoding options, this is the app for you.

Exact Audio Copy (for PC users)

If you’re using Windows and want to convert your CDs to FLAC, Exact Audio Copy is an excellent choice and offers the best error correction money can buy, for free! If there are any errors that can’t be corrected, it will tell you which time position the possible distortion occurred, so you can easily control it with the media player. This is the software of choice for serious music lovers and audiophiles. no need for x-appli/MediaGo or WMP anymore

iTunes (for Mac and PC users)

Since you most likely already have iTunes on your PC or Mac, this option will spare you the trouble of having to download and install a stand-alone ripping app. iTunes can rip CDs to three different lossless formats (Apple Lossless, AIFF and WAV) and provides error correction for damaged discs. iTunes also automatically retrieves album and artist information from the Internet.

Find the Right Sound System

Now that you’ve successfully ripped your CDs to a lossless format, it’s time to start listening to your new digital music library. To get the most out of your new lossless music files, you’ll want to make sure you have the right high-res sound equipment to play them. Once you get that taken care of, you’re set! Now you can set your CDs aside for good, knowing that you’ve extracted the purest audio files you can out of them. Get ready to listen to your music collection in a whole new way.

Hi-Res Audio:

Audio that uses a higher sampling rate than in CDs and MP3s for the encoding and playback of music. Characterized by pin-sharp clarity and nuances, Hi-Res Audio brings your favorite songs to life by retaining more data than the conversion process of original recorded music to MP3 files. Hi-Res Audio file formats include WAV, DSD, ALAC, FLAC and AIFF.

DSD vs. PCM:

There are two main ways of processing/encoding audio into digitally usable formats — PCM and DSD. In a nutshell, PCM is easier to manipulate. However, DSD is the master archive format used in recording studios, and some would say that DSD provides the closest digital file samples to the original analog source. Here are the specifics for each:

DSD:

Direct-Stream Digital uses pulse-density modulation encoding to store audio signals on digital storage media. The sampling rate for this technology is either 2.8224 MHz or 5.6448MHz, which translates to 64 times or 128 times that for CD Audio sampling.

PCM:

Pulse Code Modulation is a technology that converts standard audio signals into digital audio. It is the standard form of digital sound in computers and CDs. The amplitude of the signal is sampled at uniform intervals, and then each sample is restricted to the nearest value with a range of digital steps.

Lossy:

Lossy file compression results in lost data and quality from the original version and is associated with MP3s and AAC files. The resulting file takes up much less space than the original version, but much of the quality is sacrificed.

Lossless:

Lossless compression allows the original data to be reconstructed almost perfectly from the compressed data achieved by a class of algorithms. File sizes for lossless data are generally bigger than lossy files, but the sound quality is significantly better. Some example file formats of this kind are FLAC and Apple Lossless.

Uncompressed:

Uncompressed audio is exactly what it sounds like — original data with no compression. Generally speaking, the greatest audio quality comes from uncompressed audio files such as WAV and AIFF formats. The drawbacks to uncompressed audio include the large amount of space they take up and the bandwidth necessary to open and play these files.

kHz/bit:

This is the standard denotation of the sampling frequency over the bit depth.

The number of kilohertz (kHz)

measures the sampling frequency, which is the number of times per second audio is sampled. So, the higher the kHz number, the better the sound quality.

The bit depth

measures how many bits (or the amount of data) are in each sample. Bit depth directly corresponds with the resolution of each sample. The higher the bit depth, the better the sound quality.

the power of music

Music has a huge impact on our lives music lovers, fans and audiophiles.. It can inspire us, boost our mood, help us relax and tell a story.

2016年12月28日水曜日

DSD編集ソフトこれで一発‼DSDに入門❕

DSD音源が広まらない原因のひとつとして挙げられるのが、編集の難しさです。DSDをダイレクトに編集することが難しく、PCM音源のような成熟した編集環境を整えることができません。

Cakewalk SONAR Professional,

KORG Audio Gate4,

TASCAM Hi-Res Editor,

などで編集しましょう

高音質なのはDSDよりだんぜんPCM?

小型高音質DAC「Mojo」の周辺機器も紹介
高音質なのはDSDよりだんぜんPCM、CHORDのDAC設計者

WHY?

英国のChord Electronics社(以下CHORD)は、DACの開発の最先端を走っている企業として知られている。そのCEOを務めるJohn Franks氏とDAC設計者のRobert Watts氏が来日。

 CHORDのアプローチは、汎用のDAC ICを使わず、FPGA上で独自のアルゴリズムを動かし、汎用のDAC ICとは桁の違う膨大な計算を通じて、高精度なD/A変換をすること。特に重視しているのは、音の立ち上がりや過渡特性(トランジェント)といった“タイミング情報”の正確さ。人間の耳や脳は、こうした時間軸方向の情報に敏感で、“音程”や“音色”、“リズム”“空間の表現”(音の遅延や反射、左右の位相のズレ)などに大きく影響するという。
 「2013年にHugoを開発した際には1マイクロ秒単位の精度で十分と思っていたが、最新機種のDAVEの開発に際しては、ナノ秒単位(1ナノは10-9)の精度が影響すると確認した」(Watts氏) 
 興味深かったのはDSDとPCMどっちが音のいいフォーマットかと議論した際に、Watt氏は断然PCMであるとコメントしていることだ。PCMはDSDよりも解像感が高く空間の奥行きや音離れがよいサンプルレートは低いが、補間の精度を上げればタイミング情報もより正確にできる。一方、DSDでは仕組み上、小さな信号を捨てるので、微細な情報が失われやすいと考えているようだ。

2016年12月2日金曜日

実力を持ったソフトSonicStage Mastering Studio

パソコンのプリインストールソフトというと、どうしてもオマケソフトというようなイメージを持ってしまうことが多い。しかしSonicStage Mastering Studioは、そうしたイメージとは大きく異なり、本当にプロのレコーディング、マスタリングの世界でそのまま使える実力を持ったソフトになっている。そのことはプロやハイエンドユーザーに以下のスペックを伝えればすぐにわかるはずだ。

・24bit/96kHzのレコーディングに対応
・ASIO 2.0ドライバをサポート
・プラグインにVSTとDirectXを採用
・Sony Oxford イコライザー搭載
・Waves L1 Ultramaximizer搭載
・Waves Renaissance Bass搭載
・Waves S1 Stereo Imager搭載
・Super Bit Mapping搭載
知らない人にはさっぱりわからない言葉ばかりかもしれないが、プロの世界ではかなり使われているものが、ズラリと揃っている。また一般の人が揃えて購入しようとしたら、何十万円もかかってしまい、普通はちょっと手が出せないというものが並んでいるのである。
 この辺についてプラグイン担当の畠中は「このソフトに盛り込む要素技術のアイデアはいろいろありました。でも、エフェクトに関しては絶対に妥協したくなかったんです。そのため、社内の技術を利用するとともに、本当に良いものは社外からも技術を購入して搭載したいと思っていました。その点では企画担当にビジネス的なサポートをかなりしてもらいました」
と語る。
 ここでいう社内の技術というのは、24bitを16bitに変換する際に、理論上20bit相当の高音質CDを作成できるSuper Bit Mappingという技術。またプロの世界で高く評価されているSony Oxfordのイコライザーなど。ただ、Sony Oxfordはイギリスのオックスフォードにある研究機関でもあるため、ある意味社外のようなものではあったが。 一方、社外としてはプロのマスタリングの世界で広く使われているイスラエルのWaves社のエフェクト。また、EDIROLの24bit/96kHzのUSBオーディオインターフェース、UA-5などだ。
 とくにWavesの3つのエフェクトは、SonicStage Mastering Studioの目玉機能ともいうべきもので、このことひとつをとっても世間で大きな評判になっている。
 Wavesのプラグインの中からL1、S1、Renaissance Bassの3つを選んだ理由について畠中は、「エフェクトには奇抜な効果を狙ったものとオーソドックスなものがあります。奇抜なものには色々な種類があるし、フリーウェアでも面白いものが数多く出ています。このソフトはVSTプラグインやDirectXプラグインを利用可能としていますから、興味のある人なら、それらを自由に組み込むことが可能です。だったら、マスタリングに必要なベーシックなものを厳選しようということで、この3つを選んだんですよ。と言っているが、実にWavesがうまく使えないのが現状です。それが保存とコードの問題です。BASSの低音についてもいくつか候補はありました。同じWavesのMaxxBass-使いやすくないのですを使うとかね。結局リミッタ、コンプレッサとして使いやすいL1、モノラルやちょっと位相の崩れた音に広がりをつけるS1などWaves側からも指摘をいただいてーどうでもいいものを指摘だろう、あの3つになったんです。」と語る。崩れた音など編集するな!  とはいえ、この3つのエフェクトを搭載するのも一筋縄ではいかなかった。
「どうしても大変だったのはプロテクトの問題でした。それを短期間で実現し、実装しなくてはならない。これにはかなりパワーがかかりましたね。スケジュール的にも本当にギリギリの作業でした。一方、Sony Oxfordのイコライザーは元々DSP用に開発されたものでしたが、それをCPUベースで動くようにしなくてはならず、大変でしたね」現在は普通にVSTNativeですが。
 と振り返る。これらのプラグインが搭載されたことが、非常に強力なソフトになった大きな要因であることは間違いない。プラグインがソフトの定義と価値を作るのはおかしいぞ。こうした、外部との共同開発という面では難しいこともいろいろとあった。
「WavesやSony Oxfordなどを含め、エンジニア同士でいろいろとやり取りはしました。彼らはその世界で第一線のプロダクトを出しています。だからこそ高額なものになっているし、仕事に対する高い誇りをもっているんです。こちらから、バイオにプリインストールするソフトに搭載したいということを伝えても、最初はピンときてくれなかったんですよね」と畠中は振り返る。ほとんどのやりとりはメールだったとのことだが、ここには誇りと誇りのぶつかりあいがあり、本当に期日までにできるのかかなり不安にもなったそうだ。
「でも、Sony Oxfordのイコライザーを入れるというプランは最初はなかったんですよ。Wavesと交渉しはじめたのよりも、ずいぶん後になって出てきたものです。実は、これが偶然の産物というか、たまたま別件で会議に出向いたら、Sony Oxfordの人が来日していて、その場にいたんです。そこからとんとん拍子で話が進んで、搭載することになったんですよ」と下吉。業務用から家庭用まで幅広いオーディオ技術を抱えるソニーならではのエピソードと言えそうだ。
「最高級のイコライザーであることはわかっていましたが製品版で7〜8万円もするものでー今は1万円だぞ、かつ専用ボードを使うということだったので、諦めていたんです。ところがイギリスから来ていた担当者に聞くと、ネイティブ化(専用ボードなしで動作するようにカスタマイズすること)が可能だと言うのです。
 その後、すぐにベータ版が完成したという連絡が入たのですぐに欲しい旨伝えると、テストしてからでないと渡せないから、こちらの試作ソフトを出してくれといわれた。それに対応すると、今度はレイテンシー(操作の効果が出るまでのタイムラグ)にクレームがついた。」と畠中。ソフトのコア部分を取りまとめたアーキテクトの森田は「つまり、こんな反応が遅いソフトに対しては、うちからはモノは出せない、ってね。それに奮起してこちらも作りこみましたよ。」と正月のおとそ気分もどこへ行ったかという気持ちの中、わずか一晩でこうした要求へ実装という形で答えた時もあったと振り返る。エンジニアの間にはこうしたやりとりがたくさんあったようだ。 最終的にはSonicStage Mastering Studioにおける非常に大きなポイントとなった各エフェクト。見た目にもカッコイイし、まさにプロの現場を彷彿させる雰囲気に仕上がっているが、実は最初からここまで狙っていたわけではなかった。
 搭載するならWavesのエフェクトということで、早くからWaves社と交渉していたものの、なかなか話がまとまらなかったのだ。そのため、最悪、プラグインなしという状況を想定しながら、プロジェクトが進んでいったのだ。つまり、当初はエフェクト機能についてはメインには据えていなかったのだ。そして、結局、契約が決まらないまま、仕様を固める最終段階まで入ってしまったのである。
 ところが、そうした時期が過ぎ、納期が差し迫った1月中旬に、Wavesとの契約が決まった。もうこの時点では、仕様変更など絶対にありえない時期だったので、とりあえず機能を搭載するだけのことが精一杯であった。でも、やはりプロジェクトメンバーの中からは「せっかくのWavesのエフェクトやSonyOxfordのエフェクトが入ったのにこれでは目立たなくてもったいない」という声が上がった。そして、時期的には不可能ではあったが、その思いはみんな共通でもあった。
「結局、デザイナー、エンジニアみんないっしょに1週間程で仕上げたんですよ。今思い返すと信じられないほどのパワーでしたね。普通、あそこまでのことってできないですから」と森田は振り返る。そう、実は当初このエフェクト機能は Windows のダイアログベースで動くとても地味なもので、かつ同時に使用可能なエフェクトは2個までという仕様だった。しかし、この最終段階における驚異的なスピード開発で、見た目もラックマウントタイプのカッコイイものとなった。さらに、WavesやSonyOxfordのエフェクト以外にVSTプラグイン、DirectXプラグインを加えて、同時に使用できるエフェクトの数も8個までとなった。まさにメイン機能にふさわしいものへと生まれ変わったのである。
 開発の流れからいうと、やや反則技的な仕様変更であったが、動作するものが先にできあがったため、この仕様でいくことが決断された。
一方、SonicStage Mastering Studioのテクノロジーという中で、もうひとつ大切なのがSuper Bit Mappingだ。これはCDそのものを開発したソニーが作り出した技術で、マスタリング機材としては必須というもの。業務用の機材としては、200万円近くするそうだが、それがソフトの中の1機能として搭載されてしまったのだ。
 この辺の経緯について下吉は「きっかけは私がSuper Bit Mappingの担当者と面識があったということからでしょうか。以前、近くで仕事をしていた時期があり、Super Bit Mappingを開発しているときから横で見ていました。だからどんなことができるもので、どんな人が作っているかもよく知っていたんです。まさか、こういう形で当時の経験が活きるとは思いませんでした」と話す。
 だが、これまで門外不出といった感じのSuper Bit Mappingをソフトとして外に出してしまうことに社内的な問題はなかったんだろうか?
「これは社内的には問題にはなりませんでした。というよりも、『ぜひやろう!』という声が出てきたくらいですから。ただ、彼らもわれわれの目指しているものをすぐには理解できなかったようで、『バイオに載せてSuper Bit Mappingを世に広めましょう!でも何するの?』ってね(笑)。でも、本当に話をしてプログラムを要請したら、1週間もしないうちにものがやってきて、それでもう完全にOK。予想以上に簡単に事は進みましたよ」と下吉は語る。
 このように、社内外といろいろな交渉があり、プロジェクトチーム外の人たちの協力も得られたことで、SonicStage Mastering Studioはようやく完成したのである。
そして長い生涯の末、今幕を閉じることとなっている。どうだろう。貧しいマニアはAudacityを使うしかないのだろうか。(出力などでSBM以外の機能を使うとき、例えば録音と編集 段階)
SonicStage Mastering StudioでWAVESプラグインが保存できないのは残念でたまらない。当時のプログラマーのせいだ。

Sony OXF-R3のすべてについて 第3部

Nathan Eames, senior sales and marketing manager at Sonnox:

Sonnox was spun out of Sony Oxford in 2007. The Sony Oxford group had been established as an audio R&D lab twenty years earlier, and notably developed the OXF-R3 digital mixing console for Sony. In the early 2000’s, while the OXF-R3 was becoming a flagship product for Sony, the designers had the vision to diversify and started to port the DSP effects—initially the EQ and Dynamics sections—to new platforms such as Pro Tools. These new plug-ins gave Pro Tools users the same features and processing quality that made the million dollar OXF-R3 so famous.
This plug-in business has continued to grow with new products and new supported platforms such as AAX, with Sonnox now three times the size it was in 2007. With a group of seven designers this growth will continue as we have a long list of new plug-ins coming soon.
プラグイン市場の中では新しい方のようです。Wavesよりは歴史があるのにプラグインがあまり新しすぎるということになります。
The first two plug-ins were the Oxford EQ and the Oxford Dynamics, which were taken directly from the channel strip of the console. If you look at the consoles, the plug-in GUI is an exact footprint of the EQ in the dynamics sections of the console. The Dynamics plug-in contains six modules—gate, compression, expander, limiter, side-chain, and warmth control—which is great for live, because you only need to use one insert and you’ve got all these different modules within one rack space, which is cool.
After releasing the first two plug-ins, we started branching out from the console and developing other unique plug-ins for professional mixing. The Inflator and the TransMod came first, followed by the Reverb, Limiter, SuprEsser, and others.
The plugins were received by users: Very, very well. I remember at demonstrations in the UK people were impressed and saying, “Wow. This is unlike any other EQ we’ve heard. Somehow it doesn’t sound digital, it’s not harsh or brittle, it just sounds very transparent and musical.” Essentially it sounds exactly like the console as it’s the same algorithm. In fact, [nine-time Grammy winning engineer] Mick Guzauski had an OXF-R3 console which he obviously knows very well, having mixed many platinum Sony records on it. He uses the Oxford plug-ins and finds it hard to tell the difference. I think that’s what sets Sonnox apart from many other plug-in brands that primarily emulate existing gear. Don’t get me wrong—they do a fantastic job at it. There are many great emulations out there of classic hardware. But at Sonnox, we’re not trying to emulate a piece of classic analog outboard. They were always digital algorithms, and we’ve just taken that code and moved it to a different platform. So when you buy an EQ or a Dynamics plug-in, you’re literally buying the same channel strip from the original million-dollar console.
Well, that was quite a fun time creating completely new algorithms. The engineer who had designed the Oxford EQ and Dynamics—and much of the SSL G-series channel strip in the 80’s—had been a sound engineer since the 1970’s and wanted to create the kind of processors that no hardware was able to provide before. With the Oxford Reverb, we spent a long time developing it, and in the end came up with a sonically superior reverb to anything that had come before, because previously it wasn’t technically possible! There are some amazing presets in that Reverb, as it also uses an EQ inside the reverb to color the tail.
The same was true with Inflator—we set out to create a process that would add something that you couldn’t get from any other hardware or software. There are all kinds of exciters and similar effects to add harmonics, but there’s nothing that quite achieves what Inflator does to add warmth and presence.
Beyond not chasing analog emulations, how would you describe Sonnox’s design philosophy in approaching new plug-in development?
Our design philosophy, I would say, is to create the highest fidelity audio plug-ins that sound very clean and transparent—that’s what we’re known for. What’s interesting is that a lot of people are using analog emulations in conjunction with our plug-ins. So you’ll quite often see some classic hardware emulation plug-ins on a channel, adding some color, and then the Oxford Dynamics plug-in after that to compress and transparently level a vocal or something.
That’s what we went for when we designed the SuprEsser. A lot of people, especially at the professional level, wanted de-essing that you don’t hear. That’s really the whole point of de-essing, isn’t it? You don’t want to hear it. You shouldn’t be able to tell that there’s a de-esser on the channel—it should just be completely transparent and natural sounding.
How would you characterize the Oxford Reverb in comparison to other reverbs that are out there? At the time it was released, convolution was the flavor. And then we came out with this straightforward stereo, reverb generator. We felt that you don’t have as much control with a convolution reverb, where you take an ambience from a room and you can’t really tweak it and change it too much. With the Oxford Reverb we wanted to give people complete control to define and create a space from scratch. You’ve got separate processing paths for early reflections and reverb tail, and you can blend between the two. Even though you’re artificially creating space, they sound very natural and realistic. Another thing that’s great for live with the Oxford Reverb is that the controls are all sliders rather than knobs, which is especially useful for engineers using touch screens.
The TransMod—when did that come out? TransMod has been around a long time—it came out around 2005. It’s fantastic for hardening or softening attacks. There are a few transient manipulation-type plug-ins out there, but TransMod does it in a slightly different way. It gives you a lot of controls, including how much of the transients you’re kind of eating into, overshoot, recovery, etc. It can be used creatively too. In live sound it’s obviously most often used on drums, because you’re not getting the artifacts of heavily compressing. You’re just toughening up a snare drum that’s a little bit soft, for example, and just getting that real edge to it. It’s nice on bass as well to get real pluck and make it really clear. But you can also move the slider in the opposite direction and kind of shave off the original transient. So if it’s a funky guitar that’s bright but cutting through too much and taking too much attention, and you want to just round it or soften it down a little bit and just take off the initial edge, you can do that. You can just back off the transients on that, so it works both ways.
Inflator—where does that fit in? There was a sort of incarnation of Inflator in the console, but the design team then took it a step further. Without giving away all the secrets, it’s basically harmonic enhancement, but in a very clever way. Many people would just describe it as some kind of magical thing that makes everything sound better! It’s very simple to look out, but with some clever stuff going on behind the scenes. You can bring things forward and make them more present with just a touch of Inflator, often without even needing to EQ or compress. It’s fairly transparent—it does add a little bit of warmth, but without really adding much color.
To Do Mastering you need:
•1. A Digital Audio Workstation {DAW} with a mastering software installed. いいパソコンにAudacityやSSMSやアドビのAuditionなどです。無料ソフトはまったくだめと言っているやつがいますが、僕はそうでもないと思います。Pro Tools | FirstやStudio-One-3-Primeなどもいいのですが、VSTなどで限度があるから使いません。
•2. A pair of fairly ‘accurate’ speaker monitors (as close to flat response).
•3. An acoustically ‘conditioned’ room (as accurate as one can get it to be).
DAW is basically a computer system with an audio card to capture and to output sound. Better results can be achieved by adding high quality AD/DA signal converters, though this benefit comes with a higher price tag; there are some converters that are a lot more expensive than both the computer and mastering software put together.

Sony OXF-R3のすべてについて 第2部

Some history from the Sonnox site

Sony Oxford, which was originally set up in the late 80's to design a high end pro audio DSP system and bespoke software design tools. The target was to take Sony into the high end recording studios. The team that initiated the Oxford Group, combined a number of varied disciplines which included:
•Digital hardware design including DSP ASICs.
•High Quality analogue audio and convertor design.
•Software and specialised audio algorithm design.
•Mechanical and graphic design.
•User interface design.
•Record/mix engineering.
The first product was the Sony OXF-R3, or "Oxford" , as it's often called. A high end digital mixer, it's greatly favoured by those who care most about their sound, and it's that technology that the Oxford Plug-Ins are based on. Our philosophy has always been to bring the highest quality audio to the pro market at an affordable price.
Although software maintenance of the OXF-R3 continued for some years, the core activities of the group diversified. Oxford became the world leader for development of 1-bit audio processing (DSD, the basis for SACD), and additionally took a variety of R&D contracts from various groups in Sony such as audio compression and delivery for the Disk Technology Company in Japan, and audio processing and editing for a Sony group in California that was developing a video workstation product. One notable success has been a spin off technology from DSD into an AES-recognised standard multi-channel audio interconnection system called SuperMac. In parallel with these projects we diversified further by re-purposing much of the original OXF-R3 development towards plugins, initially for Pro Tools. In April 2007 this plugins business was spun out of Sony and became Sonnox Ltd.
The Sony Oxford Team consisted of a bunch of dedicated enthusiasts who cared passionately about what they do, and this theme is carried forwards with Sonnox. Most of the team are musicians and all have worked in pro audio in various roles.

Philosophy

In line with our philosophy, our aim is to position our products with an emphasis on quality first, combined with operational ease. We always take the time to make it right!

High End Quality Audio

Our pedigree, for want of a better term, is the high end recording studio where quality is crucial. Our technology has won over many a ‘golden ear' who previously maintained you could ‘hear digital'. (That may have been the case in the past!) We have a number of Grammy Award winners that bought the OXF-R3 console, including George Massenburg, Peter Gabriel and Mick Guzauski. We are currently selling the plugins to these same luminaries, and many more besides!

Audio Engineering and Mastering

一番興味を持つのはマスタリングです。プロになることはないでしょうけど、個人的な趣味の範囲内でやっていくことを面白いと思います。マスタリングは経験が重要で、なおかつ多少のdegreeも必要です。聞く側がどんな場合においても同じように聞けるようなことが一番望ましい。聞く・感じる;さらにはバランスの良い音源・楽しみを作るなど=マスタリングは非常にアートに近く、とてもいい趣味である。

Sony OXF-R3のすべてについて 第1部

Sony Pro Audio Japan commissioned the setting up of an independent UK design group in 1988 – Oxford Digital (to become Sony Oxford in 1993), their main project being to create the OXF-R3. The original 5 took care of the overall look & feel, and was responsible for all operational aspects. For example, Paul Frindle designed all visual aspects right down to component level detail.
Paul Frindle is a cofounder of Oxford Digital Ltd. Their first contract was with Sony (who would eventually take over the company), developing the application design of Sony’s flagship digital mixing console. The result of this work was the OXF-R3, to this day regarded as the pinnacle of digital mixing consoles, not only in music, but also in film. Like everything Paul has worked on, as much of a landmark as the OXF-R3 was, it proved to be but merely a stepping stone. Where it was leading, however, could have been much different.
“I think there was a fantastic opportunity to revive the large studio concept, by integrating non-linear storage and editing into the OXF-R3,” Paul says. “It was already a massively-powerful workstation, wide open [enough] to accept it. This would have been amazingly powerful and creative, and would have knocked underpowered workstations off the map for many years to come, restoring a much-needed differential to the elite studios against the upcoming project studios.”
The OXF-R3 has only continued to blur that line in favor of the project studios. Strapped for the kind of clients who could appreciate — let alone could afford — high-end studios, the great studios of their time have faded away one by one. If those studios could have stayed on the leading edge of digital tech, would it have been enough to halt those closures? We may never know. Fortunately for all studio buffs, high-end and project alike, there was another avenue of exploration left for Paul that would give his work the broadest audience to date.
“The design of the OXF-R3 was amazingly ahead of time. It was a great big, highly flexible processor with a whole load of software running on it, which was restricted and presented on a panel just for conformity and convenience. It was already ‘software in a box’. It could even be controlled remotely. All of the design systems and debugging tools I was using on it consisted of on-screen GUIs.” This was a dramatic, yet understated shift from the way technical engineers had previously worked. It was a physical product, but the brains of it was moving into the virtual space.
“I was warning that the OXF-R3 product concept was obsolete even before we finished it. The large digital tape recorder was nothing more than a very costly and highly delicate ‘bit bucket’ organised like an analogue machine. With the meteoric rise in performance of digital technology, it was fairly easy to envisage a time when a unit bought for £1000 would be capable of doing a large chuck of what a mixer needed. In the near future, we would be able to make art without all this paraphernalia, at a miniscule fraction of the cost. I was far more excited about this than doggedly hanging onto established formats and design constraints.”
Not one to let this excitement lay dormant, Paul and a few others started their own pursuit. “The plug-ins project was initially hatched from humble beginnings, almost by us working in our spare time and at nights. My colleague actually did the first proof of concept EQ plug-in over the Christmas break and it all grew from that.
“What people needed most were high-quality, refined and indispensable applications; the EQ and Dynamics were adapted to provide that. Making them identical to the OXF-R3 applications was a link to our existing reputation. Of course running these in 48bits for TDM or double float in RTAS actually provided better performance than was available in the OXF-R3 32-bit, fixed-point environment. And it has to be said that we ironed out a few bugs along the way too, so these were actually better than the applications in the large format console.”
For users, this resulted in what are still being called the best equalizer and dynamics processing plug-ins on the market. For Sony, however, the greatest deliverable was the system they built to create both the OXF-R3 and the plugins. “It was a complete hierarchical graphic design system running on a specially-designed processor, which allowed real-time interaction and analysis of the action for almost every instruction in your processing design!” If this description sounds familiar, it is because what Paul is describing is a modular environment for signal processing, much like tools like Max/MSP, AudioMulch and Plogue Bidule.
“Not only did it allow engineers without formal programming skills to build highly complex applications, it also very crucially allowed us to experiment freely and actually listen to what was happening in real time! It was this system that enabled me to delve so deeply into what we could hear and why, exploit that knowledge and realise the applications for the OXF-R3 console and subsequently the Sony Oxford plug-ins. Quite simply, I was able to ‘play around’ with all sorts of wacky processing models to get the behaviour that matched the all-important sounds in my head.”
This freedom of experimentation allowed Paul to move from traditional audio utilities like EQ’s and dynamics processors into more creative arenas. “The Transmod was something that I have always wanted since the mid-1970s, and over the decades had tried on several occasions to make out of analogue technology. But it was doomed to failure because of the relatively poor accuracy and stability of [analogue] components. During a lunchtime, I knocked up a digital version of my old idea as proof of concept, and it just worked!
“The Inflator came about because I received a late night call from a friend who had been doing high-profile sessions in L.A. with Eric Clapton and BB King. He had slogged away for months doing recordings and mixes, but had been beaten into production by another engineer who managed to make it louder. He wanted to know if there was anything he could possibly do to make it louder without wrecking the sound completely. I was reminded that I had to make my first transistor power amp design in 1970 twice as powerful as the previous tube amp design to get the same volume and impact. All I had to do was to apply all this old knowledge into a digital process and the same effect would be available. I used a combination of math packages and the OX-R3 design system to experiment and extract the salient details of what made the tube amp louder. This was definitely a walk on the wild side, since for the first time in this employment I was making something whose sole purpose was to generate a heap of distortion!”
After leaving Sony Oxford, Paul set out on his own again to further explore the creative possibilities opening up through digital audio. The result is his latest venture Pro Audio DSP. “This initiative was conceived as a way of getting this stuff done without too much interference from marketing executives and sales infrastructures.”

2016年11月26日土曜日

CD作り(DVDも)

アレンジが独自のものであればx-アプリなどを使い、ファイルが自分で録音したものであればSSMSを使う。CDへの印刷は必要に応じてし、書き込み速度は16倍でいい。
プロのCD-R作りソフト(ソニーも出していたMAGIXに移行したのだろうか)があるけれど、本当のCD-DAを作る工程とは程遠い。ソニーCSCDDVDを作るソフトを出していた。Click to Discが起動できそうなのでここに書いています。もし使えなかったら、PlayMemoriesホームのディスク作成機能だけでも結構いい。日本製のCD-RDVD-RBD-Rが使えるといい。ドライブも控え置きの大型タイプがいい。現在ディスクメディアはデジタルファイルのバックアップ的存在であってあまり注目されなくなっている。