2017年4月27日木曜日

Community Place Conductor&ソフトウェアパッケージ 『インターネット3Dパック』

壁 紙
やアイコンなどの
「さぱりアクセサリー集」
をお持ちの方はございますでしょうか
 
www.sony.co.jp/SonyInfo/News/Press_Archive/199708/9708-28/を見て
 ユーザーはインターネット上に三次元の仮想空間を自ら構築したり、インターネット上の三次元空間でコミュニケーションを手軽に楽しむことができるというんで、インターネット3Dパック
『PCQ-CPSK1』
が欲しくなりました

 これもまたどのアーカイブにもありませんftpサーバーでしたから。幾何公園 Version 1.0体験版(リコー製) も教育機関のみがつかっていて、激レアです。 さぱり~んセーバー Version 1.0(ソニー製)
 マルチユーザー・ワールド<さぱり>を題材にしたスクリーンセーバー。 これはVAIOの「さぱりアクセサリー集」にも入っていますが、
とにかくCDロムとしてはもうあまりにも魅力的なソフトを収録していて、誰かがISOにしてクラウドに公開したらとても喜びます。

さぱりの失敗した復活

https://web-beta.archive.org/web/20050123202633/http://members.aol.com:80/hohtoh/sapari/nise.htm

偽さぱり開発中というもの

 そしてこのJava3D さぱり=誰がやっているのか?

http://www.burger.jp/sapari/ 

 
「Java3Dさぱり」とは?
2003年までSONYが運営していた3Dチャット「さぱり」を再現したシステムです。
クライアント側は「Community Place Browser」のようなVRMLブラウザとしての機能
は持たず、アバタとワールドにVRMLファイルが扱えるだけの3Dチャットになっています。
この機能は、Sun Microsystems社のJava, Java3D
yowmhong氏のVRMLローダを利用して実現されています。

「さぱり」サービス



拝啓


このブログ記事でワンダーツー株式会社を知ったのですが、今の業務ではなく、昔、さぱりを一人で開発したという時のことについて知りたいです。

今はX3Dやその他の3D言語がまだ開発されていますが、サイト内に3Dモデルを埋めたりするためだと思います。僕は直接さぱりのチャットを経験したことはないんですが、そのワールドのデザインにはずーっと興味を持っています。

結局最終的にソニーの研究所がCommunityPlaceなどをやめたのは使う企業が少なかったからなのでしょうか。長い間VRMLやX3Dの使い道を考えているうちに仮想ワールドはあきらめたんですが、商品をインターネット上で公開するのに役立つと思いました。

というように、さぱりやGCOのファンではない今、このVirtualSocietyのさぱりをどのように一人で制作したのかが知りたいです。そしてCyberPassageなどのソフトをなぜソニーCSLが開発したのかも知りたいです。ウェブアーカイブには何かの博士が始めたということを読みましたが、それがわかればとても嬉しいです。

敬具


Answers:

なにせ20年も前のことなので記憶が曖昧なところや多少脚色等入っているかもしれませんが、ざっと
お話します。

・Cyber Passage開発の経緯


Cyber Passage(のちの Community Place)はソニーのアーキテクチャ研究所で開発されたサーバー・クライアント群です。当時CSLの暦本純一さんや、現在CSLの所長の北野さんもコンセプト段階で関わっています。

https://lab.rekimoto.org/members-2/rekimoto/

Cyber Passage Bureau(サーバー)、Cyber Passage Browser(VRMLクライアント)で構成されていました。

VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language)の開発も同時に行い、当時SGIなど他社と一緒に仕様策定していました。それぞれの会社でその仕様の実証としてソフトウェアを開発しており、SGIは cosmo playerというVRMLブラウザを出していました。

WebブラウザがIEやNetscapeがしのぎを削っていた時代で、次世代の3Dコンテンツのブラウザでも同様に競合、トップシェアをとるために競争していた背景があります。

アーキテクチャ研究所ではブラウザ開発に終始し、コンテンツ開発が追いつかなかったために、当時ソニーのワークステーション部隊、その後のVAIO開発部隊になる私の所属する部署が応援としてコンテンツ開発に乗り出しました。

といってもアサインされたのは私一人で、私ひとりアーキテクチャ研究所に乗り込んでコンテンツの開発を行うことになります。

私が担当したコンテンツは、
・Circus Park
・さぱり
・さぱりミレニアム
となります。

なお、Cyber Passageは商標がとれなかったため、正式リリース時にCommunity Placeに名称変更、商標登録を行ってます。


・3Dコンテンツ開発


開発方法は以下の手順です。

  1. 3Dモデリング(dxf形式)
  2. dxfからvrmlへコンバート(モデルのみ)
  3. vrmlでオーサリング(動きをつける)
  4.  主にJava(当初はTcl/Tk)でプログラミングし、動作をつけます
  5. Community Placeで動作確認
  6.  サーバー・クライアント環境のため、複数台のPCで動作チェック
  7. 3Dコンテンツ公開
  8. オフィシャルサイト公開、ユーザーグループの管理運営(Web)
  9. 3Dコンテンツ内でのユーザーコミュニケーション、サポート


モデリングはデザイナーにお願いしましたが、dxf形式ファイルを受け取ったあとの製作は私が
一人で担当したという流れです。企画自体、ディレクションも私が担当しています。


・3Dコンテンツの問題点


ソニーに限らず当時の3D、VRMLというのはPCの処理能力が不足して表現力という点ではすでに
普及していたPlayStation(PS1)に及びませんでした。

マルチユーザーという観点でいえばインターネットの爆発的普及は2000年以降となるため、その点でも
ユーザー数の伸びは見込めないマーケットです。

そこでVAIOにプリインストールするという手法により、「さぱり」は数十万ユーザーを獲得に成功しました。

しかし拡大するユーザー数に対して確たるビジネスモデルは存在せず、サーバー費用、運用費用がふくらむだけでした。

その後「さぱり」は私の手を離れ、So-netへ移管、有料化されます。しかし無料だったものを有料化することでユーザーが反発、激減したことでコミュニティは崩壊。収益もほとんどあがらず、その後閉鎖に追い込まれます。


現在3Dコンテンツが再び脚光を浴びていますが、処理能力が高くなっているだけでもともと内包する
問題点は変わっておらず、ビジネスモデルの確立など依然課題は変化していないと私は感じています。


以上ざっとですが、参考になれば幸いです。

さぱりアクセサリー集










無題 and CP Bureau Community Place BureauV2.0β

Unknown  

https://web-beta.archive.org/web/20070630174916/http://www.ece.uwaterloo.ca:80/~broehl/vrml/lnvj/cdrom/software/sony/SERVER/BRE20B1B.EXE
Community Place Bureauをついに見つけた!..
ですがV2.0βのためか接続に失敗して使い物にならない結果に。
グヌヌ...
Community Place Bureau World Location Server (WLS)と
Community Place Bureau Worldが別物の可能性も。
This server will allow you to share VRML1.0 and VRML2.0 worlds using the Community Place VRML2.0 browser. Sharing a world is simple, you need to add one line to an existing VRML1.0 or VRML2.0 world file which will tell the Community Place browser where the world server can be found on the 'net.
You then run the server on a PC of your choice and anybody loading the VRML1.0 or VRML2.0 file into a Community Place browser will be automatically connected to the shared world.
When connected, users can see avatar representations of other users, use a simple chat facility to talk to each other and, if you set it up, express a little emotion with our avatar action panels.
So why are we telling you this here? Because the use of a Community Place Bureau server running on your PC will not only allow you to share scenes, but it will allow you to share behaviours as well! Sounds fun, it is; shared animation, games, collaborative tools and a host of other 3D ideas are trivial to build if you have the desire.

Download the server

  • Download a Community Place Bureau test version for Windows95/NT.
  • The Bureau install package includes an ascii text configuration file named cpbureau.conf whose parameters like port and password you may wish to modify.
  • If you have the server, go to How do I use it.

How do I use it

There are two parts, running the server and connecting a client.

Running the server

The Win95 server is a simple Community Place Bureau server that runs under Windows95. You simply download it and start it up. The server has a simple menu bar allowing you to control it. When you first bring up the Bureau program, it is in the stopped state. Pull down the View menu and click on the Status option. A small status window will be displayed with information about the server status, i.e. stopped or running, connected users, and the port the server is listening on. The server starts up at a well known TCP port (5126). To change this, pull down the Options menu and select Port. You will be prompted for a new value. Choose any port number greater than 5000. If you are unsure which port to use, leave it at the default value.
Next, pull down the Run menu and select Start, the server will now start listening for connections at the port specified. In the status window, the status will change to Running.
The server is now waiting for Community Place browsers, or "clients" to connect. Once a client connects to the server port, the server handles everything, it tracks a user's location and avatar, telling other browsers about this visitor, it passes chat messages, and it handles everything needed to support shared behaviours.
The status window will also be updated to show any connections. It's a good idea to leave the status window open to see who is connected and if the server is running OK.

Connecting to the server

To connect to a server you need to do two things, tell the browser to connect by prototyping and adding a Sony_WorldInfo node to your VRML 2.0 file and by providing at least one avatar so that people can see each other.

Adding the server information to the VRML file

This information is read in by the Community Place browser when it loads your VRML file. At minimum, you must add the "cpBureau" (previously VsServer) line to define the internet address location of the machine that is running your Community Place Bureau server and the port on which that server is listening for conenctions. The format for the Sony_WolrdInfo PROTO is as follows:
  PROTO Sony_WorldInfo [
    field        MFString archive              []
    field        SFInt32  armLength            -1
    field        SFBool   avatarRoom           FALSE
    field        SFInt32  backgroundImageType   0
    field        SFString cpBureau             ""
    field        SFString cpBureauWLS          ""
    field        SFBool   collisionSound       TRUE
    field        SFBool   collisionDisplay     TRUE
    exposedField SFBool   turnButtonAvailable  TRUE
    exposedField SFBool   floatButtonAvailable TRUE
    exposedField SFBool   homeButtonAvailable  TRUE
    field        SFInt32  soundDeviceRate      22050
    field        SFInt32  soundDeviceBits      8
  ]{}

You will next need to instantiate the PROTO node in similar manner to the example given following:
  Sony_WorldInfo {
    armLength  5
    avatarRoom TRUE
    cpBureau   "fred.research.sony.com:5126"
  }

The hostID should be the full internet name of the machine either as an ascii name, eg fred.research.sony.com or as an IP address, eg 123.231.12.1 The port is the number that you choose when starting the server as discussed above.
NOTE: Other useful Sony PROTO nodes are described in the document named exten-e.htm which was included with your Community Place browser download.

The avatar file

When Community Place connects to a server, it will tell the server the name of the avatar it is using. The server uses this information to tell other browsers which avatar to use to represent you when they meet you in Cyberspace. You don't need to worry about the details at this moment. All you need to do is ensure that an avatar VRML file is available to the Community Place browser when it loads your world. When Community Place reads your world file, it will search in the directory where you placed the world file, and look for the directory avtimg where it expects to find the image files for avatars. Image files are used to display a small avatar icon in the avatar choice menu in the browser.
So, you have to make avtimg sub directory under the directory in which your main VRML world file resides. The following self extracting archive file contains images for the default avatars also offered for download below. This archive, when uncompressed into the directory where your main VRML world file resides, will automatically create a sub directory named avtimg and copy the avatar image files into that sub directory.
Now you can select an avatar from the browser pulldown menu (or by right clicking your mouse inside the Community P plug-in window). When you select one of the avatars, the browser will look for it's geometry file in a sub directory named avtwrl under your world directory where the actual model files for the avatar are kept. So, you must also make an avtwrl sub directory under your VRML world maindirectory and place within it the files contained in the following self extracting archive. Note: when you use this self extract utility to uncompress avatar geometry files into the directory where your main VRML world file resides, the /avtwrl sub directory will be created and populated automatically.

In conclusion; to allow people to share your VRML file. Start the server running, add the VsServer WorldInfo node to your VRML file, and create avtwrl and avtimg directories with the necessary files.
After that all you need to do is tell people to load the world you've created and they will automatically connect to your server.
We've provided these two avatars for you to use to get started. Of course, you can set up any avatars you like for your users. The browser doesn't care. Feel free to edit or replace boy and girl.
NOTE: Please see the documents named avatar-e.htm and action-panel-e.html which were included with your Community Place browser download package for information on how to configure your own avatar files for multi-user VRML 2.0 support.
Lastly, a note on how you serve your world and avatar files. There are two approaches:
  • In one approach, you package up the world, avatar files, and any sound and script files using some sort of archive utility. Place this on your web server and you let people download it. Users then load the files from their local disk and connect to your Bureau server.
  • A second approach is to keep the files on the web server and allow people to load them dynamically. In this case, they will download your file from the web server, connect to your Bureau server, and then when they disconnect, the file will be lost. Next time they want to join your world, they will go back to your web server and reload the file. This is the same approach most people are familiar with for HTML docs.
There are pro's and con's for both approaches. The first approach works well if the worlds are complex, large and unlikely to change. The second approach works well if the worlds are less complex (or use VRML in a clever fashion) and change a lot. Contact us if you would like more advice on this issue.

Testing the server

To test that the server is running, do all of the above and then start two Community Place browser windows on the same machine. Load your VRML world file in each of these browser windows. If you have properly followed the steps given above, the two browsers will connect to the server and will be able to see each other's avatars. After that, all you need to do is tell users about the location of your new world and when they download and connect they too will share.

Problems

There are several things that can go wrong, here's a few common mistakes.
  • When you first test the world and the server with 2 browsers on the same machine as the server:
    • if the browser fails to connect to the server, then either the server isn't running, or you've got the address:port wrong. You will know you've connected because an info window will appear saying the browser has connected, and the status panel of the server will register the new connection.
    • if you connect but don't see the other avatar, first make sure both browsers are viewing the same part of the scene, for performance reasons the server only tells one browser about other users in the same area. If you navigate both browsers to the same location and you don't see each other, then it's possible that you've forgotton to place the avatar files.
  • When you test the browser and the server on different machines:
    • if the browser fails to connect, then it's possible that your server machine is not reachable from your browser machine. This is a network configuration problem and may need a system administrator to help out. The server needs to be run on a machine that is accessible to the client machine. The client can run through a firewall but will not find a server hidden behind another firewall.
    • If you know that the server is on an internet reachable (or is reachable from your client) machine then if you suspect that the client is behind a firewall, use the preferences panel in the pull down menu of the cyberpassage browser to tell the browser where the nearest socks host is.

Restrictions

There are a couple of restrictions with this release of the server. First, it will expire on 1 October '97, after which you must download a new release. Second, the server is restricted to support a maximum of 12 connections. The publically accessible servers that we maintain to support Circus Park and other multi-user worlds allow many more connections. However these servers operate on well connected workstation nodes. Our experience has shown that most people who set up a PC server tend to do so on low powered machines with limited internet connections. In such a case overall system performance is poor ruining the experience for most users. If you are interested in running a larger server, please contact us.
もちろん逆コンパイルして新たなサーバーソフトを作るのは簡単のはず。

Action panels

You may have noticed that our publically shared worlds, such as Circus Park, offer an action panel. You can add these to your shared worlds with a little extra work. Mainly this consists of copying and setting up the required files in the same directory as your source VRML2.0 file.

Shared Behaviours

The scripting language used by the Community Place browser is Java. This is what we use to create animated objects. The shared worlds like Sony Circus Park contain active objects that are scripted using Java and a set of simple shared behaviour extensions to VRML 2.0. If you play around in the worlds we've created you'll notice some objects animate themselves without your clicking them. This is probably because they are shared among all browsers in the world and somebody else has clicked on the object. You can check this out by meeting a friend in Cyberspace, clicking an object and asking her if she sees it animated.
If you know how to write e-VRML behaviors, or VRML2.0 Java behaviors, then you can use the Sony extensions to write shared behaviors.
If you are interested in running your own server to support your own shared world and wish to know how to build shared behaviours, please contact us.
Date: 2013/03/27/21:57:11   [585]

Re:無題
Unknown  
garden.wrl

Sony_WorldInfo {
cpBureau "127.0.0.1:5126"
# cpBureauWLS "vrml.sony.co.jp:10000"
}
こんな感じで使えます。
Date: 2014/10/27/19:54:58   [604]

プラグアダプターの全て  

いつになればさぱりが復活するのでしょうか。本所時代村もさぱりももう一度あらためて体験したいんです。(昔の思い出がだんだん薄れているいま。) ソニーは結局VRMLの普及に失敗したんですね。
Date: 2015/10/03/22:34:56   [610]

Re:無題
BBA  
どちらのどなた様か存じませんが、思い出がだんだん薄れているってとってもよくわかります。
夕方、手が空くと毎日のようにさぱってたので、今でも日暮れ時になると時々ふらっとさぱりの海に潜りたくなったり。
ちょっと淋しいです。
匿名ですみません。
Date: 2015/10/14/22:48:46   [613]

Re:無題
じんじん  
なつかしすぎる・・・
Date: 2015/11/01/21:04:28   [614]

Re:無題
LOVIN  
懐かしいですね。
自分は良く丸島って言う真ん中の島で喋ってました。まだ当時はダイヤルアップの電話回線でテレホーダイの時間からやってましたねー。笑
Date: 2015/12/18/00:10:50   [619]

2016年12月31日土曜日

音楽の真実は?ビジネスのだまし方はどうだ・宣伝もしつこい

音を外に持ち出す楽しみ、音を生活のさまざまなシーンにフィットさせる楽しみ。それは、朝気持ちよく目覚めることだったり、通勤のストレスがなくなったり。ドライブ中には、密閉空間だからこそ臨場感が味わえたり、休日の午後のくつろぎがひときわ豊かになったり、書斎で飲む仕事終わりのウイスキーが、落ち着けるBARでの一杯になったり。最高の音を持ち運び、生活にうまく取り入れる。そして、毎日が楽しく豊かになる。『音・音楽』を聴かなくなる理由って、忙しくて自分のいる場に聴ける環境がないとか、聴く手段とかの面倒くささですよね。メディアが大きかったりとか。カセットだったらA面からB面にひっくり返さなきゃとか。
だけど今、逆に、レコードを聴いたりカセットを聴いたりという動きがある。わざわざ針を落とすのを楽しんだり、あと持っている音質そのものの違いとか、音のあたたかさを楽しむようになったり。
ハイレゾフォーマットでレコードの音を聴くというのは、そのいいとこ取りのような体験。あたたかみのある音を、より手軽に聴ける。さらには、場所を選ばず屋外でも聴ける。しかも、しっかりした音質で。
例えると、この一年くらい、ハンドドリップで淹(い)れるコーヒーショップが流行っていますよね。ただコーヒーを飲めればいいと思ってインスタントを飲んでいたけど、今はコーヒーそのものを“楽しむ”ようになっている。音楽にも同じことが言えますよね.
for what?
these
ステレオレコードプレーヤー
PS-HX500
グラスサウンドスピーカー
LSPX-S1
ワイヤレスポータブルスピーカー
h.ear go(SRS-HG1)
リニアPCMレコーダー
PCM-D100
LED電球スピーカー
LSPX-100E26J

How to rip your music CDs to a lossless format

If you’ve got a shelf-full of CDs gathering dust at home, it’s time to leave the past behind and start thinking about how to upgrade your music-listening experience.
On the fence about taking the time to rip your entire CD collection? Trust us, it’ll all be worth it. Keep in mind that a lossless digital music collection saves shelf space and is easy to take with you on-the-go and back up to an external hard drive. If you have a massive music collection, it also makes it easier and quicker to find that one particular song or album you’ve been craving. Plus, you’ll be able to access your digital music library from your smartphone or tablet.
Here’s how to rip your CDs and transfer them to a lossless format.

Choose Your Music File

There are several lossless formats to consider. Here are our top picks:

FLAC

FLAC (Free Lossless Audio Codec) is compressed to keep file sizes small, but it’s also lossless, meaning that it’s on par with CD quality. CD audio converted to FLAC will typically be reduced to 50 percent of its original size. For reference, a three-minute song on a CD will take up 30-40 MB of space while a ripped FLAC version of that same song takes up 15-20 MB. If sound quality is your top priority, then FLAC is the format for you.

Apple Lossless

Apple Lossless Audio Codec (or ALAC) was developed by Apple and works with iTunes, your iPod and your iPhone (it’s also supported by several other hardware and software players). Like FLAC, it’s compressed and supports metadata, and takes up about 40 - 60 percent the size of an uncompressed CD. If you’re big into Apple products, then this one’s for you.

AIFF and WAV

AIFF (Audio Interchange File Format) and WAV (Waveform Audio File Format) are lossless, but uncompressed. That means ripped files take up the same amount of space as they would on a CD (10 MB per minute of stereo sound). Because of their large file sizes, these formats are less desirable than FLAC and Apple Lossless (you’d need about twice the storage space for the same library). On the plus side, AIFF and WAV are compatible with a wide range of devices and software.

Pick a Ripping Software

Once you’ve determined which digital format you’re going to go with, it’s time to start looking at ripping software. Here are a couple options to choose from:

Max (for Mac users)

This is a free app that is available for Apple computers running Mac OS X 10.4 and higher. Max is able to create audio files in all four lossless formats. If your CDs are slightly scratched, it can correct any errors that might occur during the ripping process. If you want stellar sound quality and tons of encoding options, this is the app for you.

Exact Audio Copy (for PC users)

If you’re using Windows and want to convert your CDs to FLAC, Exact Audio Copy is an excellent choice and offers the best error correction money can buy, for free! If there are any errors that can’t be corrected, it will tell you which time position the possible distortion occurred, so you can easily control it with the media player. This is the software of choice for serious music lovers and audiophiles. no need for x-appli/MediaGo or WMP anymore

iTunes (for Mac and PC users)

Since you most likely already have iTunes on your PC or Mac, this option will spare you the trouble of having to download and install a stand-alone ripping app. iTunes can rip CDs to three different lossless formats (Apple Lossless, AIFF and WAV) and provides error correction for damaged discs. iTunes also automatically retrieves album and artist information from the Internet.

Find the Right Sound System

Now that you’ve successfully ripped your CDs to a lossless format, it’s time to start listening to your new digital music library. To get the most out of your new lossless music files, you’ll want to make sure you have the right high-res sound equipment to play them. Once you get that taken care of, you’re set! Now you can set your CDs aside for good, knowing that you’ve extracted the purest audio files you can out of them. Get ready to listen to your music collection in a whole new way.

Hi-Res Audio:

Audio that uses a higher sampling rate than in CDs and MP3s for the encoding and playback of music. Characterized by pin-sharp clarity and nuances, Hi-Res Audio brings your favorite songs to life by retaining more data than the conversion process of original recorded music to MP3 files. Hi-Res Audio file formats include WAV, DSD, ALAC, FLAC and AIFF.

DSD vs. PCM:

There are two main ways of processing/encoding audio into digitally usable formats — PCM and DSD. In a nutshell, PCM is easier to manipulate. However, DSD is the master archive format used in recording studios, and some would say that DSD provides the closest digital file samples to the original analog source. Here are the specifics for each:

DSD:

Direct-Stream Digital uses pulse-density modulation encoding to store audio signals on digital storage media. The sampling rate for this technology is either 2.8224 MHz or 5.6448MHz, which translates to 64 times or 128 times that for CD Audio sampling.

PCM:

Pulse Code Modulation is a technology that converts standard audio signals into digital audio. It is the standard form of digital sound in computers and CDs. The amplitude of the signal is sampled at uniform intervals, and then each sample is restricted to the nearest value with a range of digital steps.

Lossy:

Lossy file compression results in lost data and quality from the original version and is associated with MP3s and AAC files. The resulting file takes up much less space than the original version, but much of the quality is sacrificed.

Lossless:

Lossless compression allows the original data to be reconstructed almost perfectly from the compressed data achieved by a class of algorithms. File sizes for lossless data are generally bigger than lossy files, but the sound quality is significantly better. Some example file formats of this kind are FLAC and Apple Lossless.

Uncompressed:

Uncompressed audio is exactly what it sounds like — original data with no compression. Generally speaking, the greatest audio quality comes from uncompressed audio files such as WAV and AIFF formats. The drawbacks to uncompressed audio include the large amount of space they take up and the bandwidth necessary to open and play these files.

kHz/bit:

This is the standard denotation of the sampling frequency over the bit depth.

The number of kilohertz (kHz)

measures the sampling frequency, which is the number of times per second audio is sampled. So, the higher the kHz number, the better the sound quality.

The bit depth

measures how many bits (or the amount of data) are in each sample. Bit depth directly corresponds with the resolution of each sample. The higher the bit depth, the better the sound quality.

the power of music

Music has a huge impact on our lives music lovers, fans and audiophiles.. It can inspire us, boost our mood, help us relax and tell a story.

2016年12月28日水曜日

DSD編集ソフトこれで一発‼DSDに入門❕

DSD音源が広まらない原因のひとつとして挙げられるのが、編集の難しさです。DSDをダイレクトに編集することが難しく、PCM音源のような成熟した編集環境を整えることができません。

Cakewalk SONAR Professional,

KORG Audio Gate4,

TASCAM Hi-Res Editor,

などで編集しましょう

高音質なのはDSDよりだんぜんPCM?

小型高音質DAC「Mojo」の周辺機器も紹介
高音質なのはDSDよりだんぜんPCM、CHORDのDAC設計者

WHY?

英国のChord Electronics社(以下CHORD)は、DACの開発の最先端を走っている企業として知られている。そのCEOを務めるJohn Franks氏とDAC設計者のRobert Watts氏が来日。

 CHORDのアプローチは、汎用のDAC ICを使わず、FPGA上で独自のアルゴリズムを動かし、汎用のDAC ICとは桁の違う膨大な計算を通じて、高精度なD/A変換をすること。特に重視しているのは、音の立ち上がりや過渡特性(トランジェント)といった“タイミング情報”の正確さ。人間の耳や脳は、こうした時間軸方向の情報に敏感で、“音程”や“音色”、“リズム”“空間の表現”(音の遅延や反射、左右の位相のズレ)などに大きく影響するという。
 「2013年にHugoを開発した際には1マイクロ秒単位の精度で十分と思っていたが、最新機種のDAVEの開発に際しては、ナノ秒単位(1ナノは10-9)の精度が影響すると確認した」(Watts氏) 
 興味深かったのはDSDとPCMどっちが音のいいフォーマットかと議論した際に、Watt氏は断然PCMであるとコメントしていることだ。PCMはDSDよりも解像感が高く空間の奥行きや音離れがよいサンプルレートは低いが、補間の精度を上げればタイミング情報もより正確にできる。一方、DSDでは仕組み上、小さな信号を捨てるので、微細な情報が失われやすいと考えているようだ。